Bitcoin Energy Use and Externalities

Andrew M. Bailey, Yale-NUS College

I have compiled below some of the most important research on bitcoin's energy use, associated externalities, mitigation strategies, and bitcoin's role in clean energy build-out. Many have appeared in reputable academic venues with at least some peer-review; industry reports are housed under a separate heading. Sources that have since proven to be questionable, whether in findings or methodology are marked with an asterisk (*); I am including these, not to recommend them as sound, but because they remain influential in public discourse about bitcoin.

Energy Use


Bitcoin and Clean Energy Transition

Industry Reports